National Sanitation Campaign Evaluation

LSHTM/Elisa Roma


Poor sanitation and hygiene conditions remain a public health concern in Tanzania and cost the country 1% of its annual GDP. Recent estimates from the 2010 Demographic Health Survey report an increase in open defecation rates to 16% (5.3 million) of the rural population since 1990. 

The Government of Tanzania has taken several initiatives to address the poor WASH conditions in the country, the most recent being the National Sanitation Campaign (NSC) launched in 2012. The NSC, conducted under the Water Sector Development Programme II, is a concerted effort to increase the coverage of improved sanitation facilities and promote hygienic behaviour in rural areas of the country, using community-led total sanitation and sanitation marketing.  

Since 2013, SHARE has collaborated with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, the National Bureau of Statistics, the National Institute for Medical Research, DFID Tanzania and the World Bank/WSP to design and conduct a process evaluation of Phase I of the NSC.

The main objective was to rigorously assess its implementation and to determine whether it was likely to catalyse the expected changes, at both household and school level. The evaluation also aimed to assess the enabling environment and the level of unit costs spent during the NSC to identify potential strategies to increase the programme’s efficiency in Phase II. The NSC evaluation comprised of the following main components:

  1. A survey of 4,712 households
  2. A survey of 75 primary schools in rural areas
  3. Evaluation of the enabling environment through 124 interviews with Regional and District Health and Education Officers
  4. Analysis of the costs necessary to achieve expected results

SHARE is currently working on the final report for process evaluation, which is expected to be ready by the end of 2015. 


SHARE contributes to achieving universal access to effective, sustainable and equitable sanitation and hygiene by generating evidence to improve policy and practice worldwide.